- An APPLICATION of the European FoundatIon for Qualıty Management (EFQM) Excellence Model:
A PRACTICE IN KINDERGARTEN IN THE CITY OF ADIYAMAN/TURKEY
This paper describes an implementation and testing of the EFQM model as a framework for total quality management (TQM), and present an overview and results of the application of the model’s criteria and structure at a kindergarten in Adıyaman, which was the first institution to implement there. All our input of the EFQM Excellence Model criteria (parents, students, employees and stakeholders) were implemented and tested there, and at the end of the one year implementation period, the changes inputs and outputs were tested by questionnaires.
When the data before and after the implementation were compared, the findings suggest that a significant quality improvement was achieved in the kindergarten. Moreover, when the findings were compared with a private school in Antalya, the results were mostly better too. The research findings are quite original in terms of its implementation and <0}providing a framework to encourage collaboration, cooperation and innovation in public sector organizations.
Keywords: Quality, Total Quality Management, EFQM Model.
Yrd.Doç.Dr. Murat Ayan, email@example.com +905363489989
PhD Student Anisa Ayan, firstname.lastname@example.org +79376286829
Kazan Federal University
Research Problem (Research Topic): Identifying what kind of positive developments in interior (employees) and exterior customer satisfaction there are by face to face survey with students, parents and local community with the implementation of EFQM Excellence Model in kindergarten.
Purpose of the Study: Identifying how customer satisfaction and service quality can be increased with the implementation of EFQM Excellence Model in kindergarten.
Vitality of the Study: Promotion of the model by pilot application and dissemination of this model in Adıyaman.
Hypotheses of the Study: It is thought that the model will take on the task of increasing and popularizing the service quality and customer satisfaction.
Limitations of the Study: The study was applied in 1 of the 24 schools in Adıyaman and involves the outcomes of this application.
Definitions of the Study: EFQM Excellence Model, is the administration model that has 4 inputs and 4 outputs and evaluates how the inputs are used effectively by a particular process and measures the satisfaction of the stakeholders.
Plan of the Study: It is planned to start the application of the model by raising the awareness of kindergarten personnel. It is foreseen to collect data aimed at sub criteria by telling the 9 criteria of the model to the personnel during a month. At the next phase, it is planned to observe Entry Criteria in EFQM Excellence Model; Leadership, Employees, Cooperation and Resources, Policy and Strategy by a particular process and to identify the data Outcome Criteria; Employees, Customers, Community and Basic Performance Results by satisfaction surveys.
Total quality management (TQM) is a management model which aims to excel both social and technical dimensions of production or service outputs to realize excellence in all. In addition, “EFQM Model, also known as the EFQM Excellence Model, is a framework for organisational management systems, promoted by the European Foundation for Quality Management” (Allur, 2010:974).
All business institutions throughout Europe need to implement this system if they wish to be competitive globally therefore they need to be put it into practice in all processes of their business cycle (Bou-Llusar et al., 2008; 1-22).
The purpose of this paper is to look into the EFQM Excellence Model, as a framework for TQM, and to present an overview of the excellence model, criteria and structure of EFQM with applied research in a kindergarten to see how these criteria work in the real business environment. This paper will test whether the excellence model provides a framework that helps to encourage collaboration, cooperation and innovation to create an excellent organizational culture.
- TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Total Quality Management is a balanced way for all stakeholders (customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, and community) to meet the expectations of continuous improvement of all activities in the organization.
TQM can be defined by some key elements or principles which are common to all of them, for instance; customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, commitment and leadership on the part of top management, involvement and support on the part of employees, teamwork, and measurement via indicators and feedback (Sousa and Voss, 2002;697. Claver-Cortes et al., 2008;229. Teh et al., 2009;1119).
EFQM is a model that is based on nine main criteria to include leadership, strategies, process, sources, human resource management, customers, social responsibility, performance, and satisfaction applied upon employees and employers in the system. In this case, system was a school named (Zübeyde Hanım Preschool) in Turkish, and results were discussed to be considered excellent in comparison among competitors.
Five of these criteria are named as “input” and four of them are named as “result”. Inputs include the activities of an organization. On the other hand, result criteria show what the organization carried out. Results are originated by inputs. The model is predicated on the fact that many approaches can be used to achieve sustainable excellence in all dimensions of performance is based on the following expression: excellent results which are reflected to the performance, customers, employees and the society can be provided with an appropriate understanding of policy and strategy, employees, processes, resources and leadership processes.
The EFQM Model is formed in 3 steps, being Enablers, Results, and Innovation & Learning. Leadership, Processes, and Key Performance Results are the main points and includes some criteria such as; people, policy&strategy, partnership&resources, people results, customer results, and society results. The target group of this research is managers in a kindergarten in Adıyaman, Turkey. Its aim was to be an excellent learning organization which targets the continuous development of the original concept of the learning approaches.
At that point, researches and practices will continue with this model. EFQM model has 3 degrees, which are determination in excellence, perfection in excellence, and quality award. We are at the bottom of the ladder; the first degree in excellence was completed successfully and positive results were obtained. Other degrees will be in progress with practices in that school. The results based on our research will be discussed below.
- CRITERIAS OF AN EXCELLENCE MODEL
As mentioned above, EFQM is a model that is based on nine main criteria which are as follows:
- LEADERSHIP AND CONSTANCY OF PURPOSE
Excellent leaders develop the mission and vision of an organization and make the process easy to implement purposes of the system. The behavior of the leaders of an organization’s clarity of purpose in the organization provide union for the employees of the organization as well as create an environment in which perfection is accessible. Leadership as one of the nine main criteria of EFQM have 5 sub-criteria such as;
- Leaders create the mission, vision, and values of the organizations and be the first to set others in motion.
- Leaders play an important role to create the organization’s management system, to implement and enhance this system.
- Leaders are the representatives for an organization in customer relationships.
- Leaders reinforce the excellent culture of the organization.
- Leaders determine and lead the needs for institutional change.
“The enablers represent the way the organization operates, and the results concentrate on achievements relating to organizational stakeholders” (Shirshams and Ashoub, 2012;2131).
- POLITICS AND STRATEGIES
Excellent organizations, took a place in the market and the sector’s mission and vision by developing strategies which took into consideration stakeholder-oriented life styles. Policies and strategies are created, revised and updated for each organization.
- RESULTS ORIENTATION
In an excellence model; all stakeholders such as; employees, customers, suppliers work to provide a balance between the requirements and the needs of the system.
- CUSTOMER FOCUS
The customer is a person who has the final say about the quality of products and services by focusing on the needs. Customer expectations are pretrial beliefs about a product or a service (Olson and Dover, 1979; 180).
- PROCESSES AND DATA MANAGEMENT
Excellent organizations will be fully satisfied on their policies and strategies to support their customers and other stakeholders, and they will increase the value added for the process to design, manage and improve the quality.
- EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT AND PARTICIPATION
Excellent organizations manage employees’ full potential and knowledge at the individual level and team level throughout the organization and provide to benefit all developments. By the way, excellent organizations follow an equally and fairly way in the process for all employees.
- CONTINUOUS LEARNING, INNOVATION AND IMPROVEMENT
The organization’s performance, knowledge, continuous learning, innovation and improvement, and managed in the culture should be shared to be an excellent among all competitors.
- DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
The EFQM Excellence Model provides a framework that encourages cooperation, collaboration and innovation (EFQM, 2014).
- CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Corporate Social Responsibility, briefly CSR, is a self-initiative by organizations to serve the society (Kumar and Balakrishnan, 2011;120). It also is an ethical approach to the protection of the interests of the organization and the adoption of long-term employees, and existing regulations to exceed the expectations of society in general.
As a result, each criterion is seperated into several sub-criteria and each sub-criterion is illustrated with various points in the organization in order to develop the main criteria. In the European context, the EFQM Excellence Model is considered to constitute a valid representation of quality (Westlund, 2001;126).
EFQM Model studies took one year (September – September) (March 2016 – March 2017) in Zübeyde Hanım Preschool. An intensive process of working was carried out for one year. TQM system has been applied at the school. Every weekend, meetings were held. EFQM Model was introduced to employees. Basic information about TQM was given and experiences were shared. Presentations were made. The group work activities and the feeling of being a part of the organization was supported by training the staff and by the total participation principle. First of all, quality policy was formulated. Vision, Mission, Strategic Plan were determined and old ones were revised. Within this framework, the school’s;
Old Mission: For the future of Turkey; giving education in an effective and efficient manner by approaching people with love, sharing, being at peace with environment and himself, affecting the age with its individual wealth, being tied to Atatürk’s principles and revolutions, taking into account environmental factors while preparing education program.
New Mission: Reintroducing individuals, who are self-confident, able to take decisions on his own, have desire to learn, creative, curious, active and cheerful, grown with respect and love, have the spirit of tolerance, friendship, peace and brotherhood, to the society.
Old Vision: Being the address for persistence of quality and the best in all conditions by meeting at the dreams of our children.
New Vision: By a sophisticated education, full equipped children, whom we consider as baliee, will be provided to the society.
Trainings and briefings about the main concepts were done. After the end of the 6.month, the EFQM report was written. Turkey Ministry of National Education (MONE), organizes some competitions to improve the academic and administrative quality with KALDER.
In this context, we were involved in the process of quality improvement of Zübeyde Hanım Preschool. Academic and administrative staff began preparations. On the basis of criteria the report was written and sent for the evaluation. Zübeyde Hanım Preschool became the first among the other preschools in the district. The report then auditioned and became the first in province of Adıyaman. Now the results of Turkey elimination is expected. If it passes the pre-selection, field inspections will be carried out. The scope of this report involves the audits of information given in paper by controlling it whether the given info is implemented in practice or not. After the final grading of schools remaining three schools will be awarded throughout Turkey.
Based on this information, the school mentioned above took nine EFQM criteria into consideration. The following processes were fallowed:
Under the leadership of the leaders, the school’s mission, vision, principles and values were established. They reflect the school’s principles and values to behavior and considered as leaders and samples for the quality culture. Leaders support improvement, innovation and creativity, and provide support for learning and working together. The tasks of all leaders at all levels at school were identified and their support to the management was provided (board and committee activities, events, and identification of key processes, etc.).
Leaders manages the relationship between the school employees, the people who are given service and with whom they are in cooperation (demands and expectations of these groups, listening, responding and making suggestions, successes, recognition, appreciation, etc.). The school leaders measure, evaluate and improve their leadership activities. School leaders provide personal development. School leaders support the fulfillment of social responsibilities.
- (STRATEGY) – SCHOOLPLAN
Analysis of the current situation of the school was made. (SWOT, PEST). When preparing the school’s strategic planning, the existing institutional performance (self-assessment), research and analysis activities, the ministry plans in the near environment, economic and demographic indicators, recent developments in education and science were taken into account. The school strategic planning, stakeholder expectations / needs were identified and plans were reflected. The determination of the future expectations about the strategic plan inputs are done. The school’s mission, vision, principles and values, strategic goals, objectives, activities and / or projects are specified. How does the school identify performance indicators and evaluate them? The school’s strategic plan and action plans / development plans are associated with the processes. The school prepares the action plans / development plans, costing and budgeting (According to the law No:5018 – performance-based budgeting). The school announces the strategic plan, the spread of the plan is done by the key processes, through the plan is reviewed and revised regularly.
- HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The knowledge and competencies of employees are analyzed and taken into consideration for the school / in-house assignments. The evaluation of employee performance, appreciation and rewarding is done. The improvement of knowledge and qualifications of the employees are supported. The formation and operation of teams are provided. Employee participation in management is assured.
Identifying and meeting the needs of communication of the employees is essential. Distribution of tasks and job descriptions within the school to the school board and the formation of committees, councils of workers and the duties, powers and responsibilities are performed. Innovative and creative ideas from employees and project proposals are evaluated. Social, cultural and sporting activities are supported. The use of wages and non-wage resources in a fair way is provided.
- PROPERTYMANAGEMENTRESOURCES KNOWLEDGE AND COOPERATION
School uses its financial resources as stated in the strategic plan and action plan / development plan. The school manages its co-operation and knowledge. School buildings, equipment and materials are used effectively and efficiently. All kinds of building, equipment and materials, maintenance, repair, cleaning, and security is provided. Technological developments are monitored and gained to school. Technology and knowledge advantages are used at the maximum extent. The school budget is managed effectively and efficiently. The school shares information with stakeholders.
- PROCESS MANAGEMENT
The school / organization processes are analyzed and defined. The school determines the critical and key processes. The school / organization processes, performance is measured and managed. School processes are reviewed and improved.
- CUSTOMER(PARENT/STUDENT) SATISFACTION RESULTS
- Student /Parent Satisfaction Regarding The Results; Availability and Contact, Wishes, Suggestions and Complaints, Reliability, Security, Codetermination, Student Affairs, Education and Training, The Physical Environment of School, The school canteen, dining hall and dormitories, Social, Cultural and Sporting Events, Evaluation, Award, Thanks and Appreciation Certificates, Gaining Positive Behavior and Training, Impact and Contribution to Community
- SensingMeasurements–(Motivation); Career Development, Communication, Empowerment, Equal Opportunity, Codetermination, GovernmentSatisfaction (Leadership), Appreciation/Recognition System, Performance Evaluation System, The school’s Vision, Mission and Values Perceptions Regarding, Training and Development.
- SensingMeasurements–(Satisfaction); ManagingAuthority, Conditions of Employment and Employee, Facilities and Services, Health and Safety Policies, Job Opportunities and Salary / Wage Payments to Non, Working Partner Relations, Managing Change, Organization’s Environmental Policy and Environmental Impact, The Role of the Local Authority and the General Society, Employee Administrative Matters Accuracy and Sensitivity, Replies requests Speed.
- Performance Indicators Achievements–(MotivationandParticipation); Joined Improvement Teams, Suggestion System Registration, Levels of Training and Development, Study Team Measurable Benefits.
- Performance Indicators Achievements–(Satisfaction); Rates ofabsenteeism andillness, Business, Level of accidents, Complaints, Trends in Recruitment, Employee Turnover Rates, Strikes, Non-wage enjoyment of the rights, Enjoy the benefits of the institution.
- Performance Indicators Achievements–(Services Providedby the Companyto Employees); Employee Administrative Matters Accuracy and Sensitivity, Communication Effectiveness, Replies requests Speed, Training Evaluation.
- COMMUNITY–RELATED SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYPERFORMANCE RESULTS
These are; The results about the sharing of knowledge and experience of the school / organization with other schools / institutions, their relation to the environment, The results of environmental sensitivity the protection of the natural environment, The results of the protection of natural resources, The results about the existence of the school / institution in the media, The results about the improvement of the social environment in all kinds of business activities, The results about the people in need of special education and the support provided for the socially disadvantaged individuals, The number of the titles and awards gained about the Community satisfaction, The number of the voluntary activities that were done by the school / institution for public health, social, cultural, sports and so on, The chart for the impact and contribution to the society.
- BASICPERFORMANCE CRITERIA
- Financial Results; The results ofthe incomeand expenditure, The year income / expense amount for a student during an academic term, The coherence of expenditures of school / institution with the strategic plan and action plans, The rate of reaching the objectives of the budget, The results of efficiency and savings.
- Other Results; Occupancy rate ofthe schoolaccording to the capacity, The student teacher ratio, The schools in the school district’s share of, Classes according to their areas of development achievements, Development areas by the inability to start or, Due to the success of the school to take part in local and national media status, National and local competition results in, The scope of compulsory education starting in primary school the number of students, The results of Processes, The results of the new process design, The results of the state of realization of the objectives of the strategic plan, Building hardware tools and materials, economic and effective use of the results of, The results of collaborations with universities and education institutions, Inspection scores, school show successful results for other applications, The results of student disciplinary incidents, Self-assessment results to improve in line with, Accidents at school.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In light of the above the following results were obtained:
Figure: 3 – Wishes, Suggestions and Complaints
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||48,1||80,3||83,7||–|
Figure: 4 – Reliability
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||53,7||90,0||92,4||–|
Figure: 5 – Performance Evaluation System
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||43,7||76,1||84,0||–|
Figure: 6 – Participation Rates of Satisfaction Surveys
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||100,0||100,0||100,0||–|
Figure: 7 – Overall Satisfaction
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||72,0||84,3||92,3||–|
Figure: 8 – Occupancy Rate of the Capacity of the School
|2013 / 2014||2014 / 2015||2015 / 2016||2016 / 2017|
|Zübeyde Hanım Kindergarten||101||141||147||–|
In our example as the students, who use the service, are so young, the family satisfaction is considered with the help of the both their and their families’ transfers about child feeding (hand skills) and having the skills to express themselves and so on.
Children are accompanied by experienced and cumulative educators and children / parents expectations are perceived (In parent-teacher meetings, targets put by the parents and the school were reached and exceeded. Moreover, when comparisons are made with a school in Turkey who won award last year it is confirmed by the data that the school approached the award-winning school in a rate of 85% .
Details of expectations, a number of gaps have emerged as a result of the clash of personal characteristics. These are;
Example 1: The family wants the staff to feed the child, but the child can be trichinosis or can be choosy in eating.
Example 2: The child can be addicted to the family.
Example 3: The child can be introverted.
In this process, there were some prejudices of the staff. They did not believe the process. They showed their willingness during their participation to the process or they did not attend the process. This process required intense dedication and effort (such as coming work at the weekends) This kind of situations didn’t welcome by their families and a number of gaps were occurred (Zeithaml, et al.; 1990;4). Therefore, at this point, familiar problems began. However, inviting the spouses to the school, explaining the benefits of the process and talking about the positive results that would be seen after the process, helped to overcome these gaps.
On the other hand, staff was considering themselves as already doing the right job; they thought that there was no need (the process of the EFQM Model). Generally a more individual understanding was dominant. Over time, the process was continued by creating awareness training for team play, and this was reflected in the quality of service in all processes of formation.
Conflict about the roles created another gap between the employees. As the school is a public institution, administration has no chance to choose the employees. Conflicts between employees can be felt by all at the school. However, over time these gaps were overcome by training and by the team work spirit.
Academic and administrative staff had a great stress because of the conflict between their families and the feeling of finishing the work that they had start. This psychology sometimes affected the quality of the service / service delivery and the performance of their tasks,
After all, the emerging situations caused because of the poor quality reflected to the service quality and the school management resulted the quality in the ideal level. As a result, this study took its part in upper levels when compared with the schools in the province and across the country, which have the same condition and position, with employees experiencing the same problems.
- This study is also the first EFQM activity conducted in a public Preschool.
- In many public schools this kind of studies are considered as unnecessary but our school took the first step and without waiting any profit they believed and applied
- Under the leadership (some parents and teachers), the importance of this study was emphasized. The need for the qualified service and life stressed and this belief was exhibited.
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